BAME COVID-19 Research

Research Projects

The experiences of those living with sickle cell or caring for someone in the COVID-19 pandemic survey

This survey aims to capture your experiences of living/caring for someone with sickle cell disorder in the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective will be to use this data to determine whether those living/caring for someone with sickle cell disorder are receiving all the information required, and whether the guidance is suitable for their circumstances.

Thank you for taking the time to fill out this survey, it will go a long way to ensure that those living with sickle cell are receiving the treatment they deserve.

BAME Nursing staff experiencing greater PPE shortages despite COVID19 risk warnings

A survey of RCN members shows that black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) nursing staff are more likely to be left without PPE.

The RCN conducted a poll on more than 5,000 nurses about the provision of personal protective equipment (PPE), including more than 700 from BAME backgrounds.

- 43% of respondents from a BAME background said they had enough eye and face protection equipment compared to 66% of white British nursing staff.

- 40% of BAME respondents said they did not have adequate PPE training compared with31% of white British respondents.

Emerging findings on the impact of COVID-19 on black and minority ethnic people

As countries around the world struggle to contain coronavirus (COVID-19), there is growing recognition that rather than being a great leveller, the pandemic may exacerbate existing inequalities (see also the recent Health Foundation long read on inequalities). Understanding is advancing very rapidly as researchers publish new studies every week.

This article sets out some of the key points emerging from recent research on COVID-19 and health inequalities. It reviews the evidence that black and minority ethnic communities are at greater risk of catching and dying from the virus. It also considers the reasons why these groups are at greater risk. The economic impacts of the pandemic on black and minority ethnic groups are not covered.

Institute of Fiscal Studies: Are some ethnic groups more vulnerable to COVID-19 than others?

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected some sections of the population more than others, and there are growing concerns that the UK’s minority ethnic groups are being disproportionately affected. Following evidence that minority groups are over-represented in hospitalisations and deaths from the virus, Public Health England has launched an inquiry into the issue.

In the short term, ethnic inequalities are likely to manifest from the COVID-19 crisis in two main ways:

  • through exposure to infection and health risks, including mortality;

  • through exposure to loss of income.

The Institute of Fiscal Studies have released a report that brings together evidence on the unequal health and economic impacts of COVID-19 on the UK’s minority ethnic groups, presenting information on risk factors for each of the largest minority groups in England and Wales.

HSJ: Deaths of NHS staff from COVID-19 analysed

Coronavirus disease 19 — or COVID-19 — is a pandemic illness currently causing the deaths of thousands of patients across the globe. In recent weeks, there has been sustained public and media interest in the death from COVID-19 of health and social care workers. Both mainstream and social media outlets have been reporting on these deaths individually or collectively but we are not aware of any formal analysis of this data. HSJ set out that analysis.

Deaths in the NHS workforce are reasonably consistent with the rates in the general population, the figure for BAME NHS staff is higher they comprise 21% of staff but 63% of deaths. 95% of medics who have died from COVID19 being from BAME groups when they make up 44% of the workforce as of the 22nd April.

NHS Confederation: The impact of COVID-19 on BME communities and health and care staff

This briefing considers the evidence on the impact of COVID-19 on black and minority ethnic (BME) communities and health and care staff. It explores potential underlying factors, recommends areas for improvement and offers practical advice on how to mitigate risks. Intended for senior health and care leaders, it aims to inform decision making and influence change.

NIHR ARC Northwest Coast: Inequalities in COVID19 mortality related to ethnicity and socioeconomic deprivation

Assessed the association between ethnic composition, income deprivation and COVID19 mortality rates in England. This study provides evidence that both income deprivation and ethnicity are associated with greater COVID19 mortality. To reduce these inequalities governments need to target effective control measures at these disadvantaged communities, ensuring investment of resources reflects their greater need and vulnerability to the pandemic.

CEBM: BAME COVID-19 DEATHS – What do we know? Rapid Data & Evidence Review

Evidence indicates markedly higher mortality risk from COVID-19 among Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) groups, but deaths are not consistent across BAME groups.

Excess deaths (observed vs. expected) are around 1.5 times higher than expected for the Indian population, 2.8 times higher for the Pakistani population, and 3 times higher in Bangladeshis. Excess deaths are 4.3 times higher for the Black African population, 2.5 times for the Black Caribbean population, and 7.3 times higher for Black Other Background individuals.

ONS: COVID-19 related deaths by ethnic group, England and Wales

Taking account of age, Black males are 4.2 times more likely to die from a COVID-19-related death and Black females are 4.3 times more likely than White ethnicity males and females.

  • After taking account of age and other socio-demographic characteristics & measures of self-reported health and disability, the risk of a COVID-19-related death for males and females of Black ethnicity reduced to 1.9 times more likely than those of White ethnicity.

  • Similarly for Bangladeshi and Pakistani males were 1.8 times more likely and 1.6 times for females.

  • These results show that the difference between ethnic groups in COVID-19 mortality is partly a result of socio-economic disadvantage and other circumstances, but a remaining part of the difference has not yet been explained.

ONS: Deaths involving COVID-19 by occupation

Average number of deaths in males, with 9.9 deaths per 100,000 compared with 5.2 deaths females

  • Healthcare workers (Dr’s, Nurses, Allied Health professionals) no difference from the general population

  • Men in the lowest working class had the highest death rates due to COVID19 21.4 deaths per 100,000 males (includes hospital porters)

  • Male security guards 45.7 deaths per 100,000

  • Male taxi drivers 36.4 deaths per 100,000

  • Social care 23.4 deaths per 100,000 males and 9.6 females

  • Bus drivers, 26.4 deaths per 100,000 males

University of Leicester: Risk Reduction Framework for NHS Staff at Risk of COVID19 Infection

From the outset of the COVID-19 pandemic there has been a focus on trying to identify those who might be at greatest risk of infection or adverse outcomes, including recent concerns about deaths amongst healthcare workers from a black and minority ethnic background. An expert working group led by Prof Kamlesh Khunti, University of Leicester and member of the UK’s Independent SAGE group, developed a Risk Reduction Framework for NHS Staff at risk of COVID-19 infection.

The Risk Reduction Framework supports NHS organisations to develop their own risk assessment for NHS staff.

NIHR ARC NWL: Health Inequalities: The hidden costs of COVID19 in NHS Hospital Trusts

The article highlights the impact COVID19 is having on marginalised groups, and that the reduction in health services currently available is impacting on them disproportionately. The Article argues that the NHS should seek to innovate, enabling it to continue to provide services to vulnerable groups otherwise health inequalities could increase.